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Tuesday, March 25, 2014

History of Wonosobo Dieng temple

History of Wonosobo Dieng temple , a temple complex located in a very broad plateau named Dieng . Dieng plateau itself is actually a very active volcanic plains wide , and can be regarded as a giant volcano . Some people call this place the Dieng Plateau , there is also a mention of Mount Dieng .

Dieng plateau sifting around Wonosobo and Banjarnegara district , and is located to the west of Mount Sindoro and Sumbing . Dieng is located at an altitude of about 2,000 meters above sea level . As an active volcanic mountain , plateau also has some that are still very active craters scattered in several places with a considerable distance apart .

Position is high enough to make the air temperature in this region is very cold for Indonesian people . In the daytime air temperature in the range of 15 ° -20 ° Celsius and 10 ° Celsius at night . Whereas in certain months the temperature can reach 0 ° Celsius .

Wonosobo Dieng Temple History - Discovery Dieng temple

Dieng temple is a Hindu temple complex . Early discovery of Wonosobo Dieng temple complex occurred in about the year 1814. Begins when a British soldier who at the time was intended traveled in the Dieng plateau . Inadvertently he saw some of the top of the temple which is submerged in the puddle of water .

Then finally in 1856 dimualilah draining and dredging efforts around the temple complex area . This effort is led by a Dutchman named Van Kinsbergen . And started from there and found some of the temple tersebat in some place not too far away . This process is then followed by the process of recording and image capture in 1864 .

Wonosobo Dieng temple history

Dieng temple 's history up to the present is not so clear , since no written evidence that mentions about when exactly the Dieng temple was built . Only an inscription found in the region , which has a rate of 808 AD .

There are some experts who say that the Dieng temple complex built about a century 8-9 AD on the orders of the king during the Sanjaya dynasty . However, according to research further , Dieng temple complex have been built through 2 stages of development . The first phase is expected to start by the end of the 7th century and ended in the early 8th century . While the construction of the second phase took place in the mid 8th century until about the year 780 AD .

Wonosobo Dieng Temple History - Temple complex Dieng

Wonosobo Dieng temple itself is a temple complex . This means that not only consists of one building of the temple , but rather consists of many clusters of temples scattered in multiple locations rather far apart . Wonosobo Dieng temple complex as a whole occupies an area of ​​1.9 x 0.8 square kilometers .

The temple complex consists of three groups of clusters of temples and 1 individual temple . Interestingly all these temples groups named after characters in the book puppet like the Mahabharata which Ghatotkacha Temple Complex , Arjuna Temple complex , Temple Complex Dwarawati , and another is that the Milky temple is not a temple group ( stand alone ) .

Wonosobo Dieng Temple History - Temple Complex Arjuna

Arjuna temple complex is one of the temple complex in Wonosobo Dieng temple . Arjuna temple complex consists of five temples namely Candi Arjuna , Semar Temple , Temple Puntadewa , Sembadra Temple , Temple Heroine .

1 . Arjuna Temple
Arjuna temple is the main temple in this temple group . Arjuna temple square shape measuring about 4 m2 . Arjuna temple located in the most southern and western facing characterized by the stairs on the west side of the temple . Agency Arjuna temple located on a 1 meter tall platform .

2 . Semar Temple

Semar temple is the only temple in this complex is not located in the same row with the other temples . Semar temple is located right in front of Arjuna temple , and its position facing each other . Semar temple is rectangular and has a smaller size than Arjuna Temple . In Semar temple there is only an empty room with walls adorned with small windows .

3 .  Srikandi temple
temple located just north temple Arjuna . Srikandi Temple cuboid outer wall decorated with reliefs of Lord Vishnu in the north , the south wall Brahma and Lord Shiva in the east wall .

4 .  Sembadra temple

Sembadra temple located in the northern temple Heroine . The shape of the cube in the roof and shapes like polygons on the body .

5 .  Puntadewa temple

Puntadewa temple is located at the northern end of the row of this temple . Temple Puntadewa look slim and tall because it stands on 2.5 -meter tall platform . The temple has a narrow empty space in it .


Talks about the temples in Dieng has been discussed by NJKrom in his book Inleiding tot de Hindoe - Javaansche Kunst ( 1923) , 3 vols , EBVogler in De Monsterkop in de Hindoe - Javaansche Bouwkunst (1949 ) , who discuss the chronology of temple temples of Central Java by Kala - makaranya ornament , then Soetjipto Wirjosuparto discuss Dieng temple in his essay entitled the History of Ancient Buildings Dieng ( 1957 ) .

According Soetjipto Wirjosuparto , Dieng complex was first visited in 1814 by HCCornelius , and according to the report , the Dieng plateau is still a lake and in between there are temples submerged in water . New 1856 J.van Kinsbergen make pictures Dieng temples , the water flowed so plains become dry .

EBVogler split chronologically temples in Central Java , based on the characteristics of Kala - makara ornament . He made ​​pembabakan temples as follows :

Old Art Building in Central Java , but has been lost because it is made daribenda - perishable items
Sanjaya art building period ( mid- seventh century - mid eighth century ) , Although there is no bekas2nya , Vogler determines that the building 's future berakarkan Sanjaya art building Pallwa South India . Art building called building Dieng inijuga Kuna .
Sailendra art building ( the mid - eighth century mid IX century ) , is a blend of art elements Dieng Kuna and North India . Sailendra art building can be divided into two streams , namely :
New art building Dieng , who will continue their arts buildings Dieng Kuna . An example is bangunan2 in Dieng
Java Sailendra - art building that berakarkan North Indian art building , an example is in the area of ​​South Kedu candi2 and around Prambanan , the temple Kalasan , Sari , Lumbung , Sewu , Borobudur , Mendut , Pawon
Arts Unity building , ( the mid - ninth century about 927 years ) . So-called " unity " because Sanjayawamsa been united with Sailendrawamsa through marriage . There is mixing with the art style of building in East Java and the art style of the building from outside Java . Including this group is Puntadewa temples in Dieng , candi2 Gedongsanga , Plaosan , Sojiwan and Lara Jonggrang .
Central Java art building late ( ( 500-928 ) , which mimics the art of building temples Sembadra temple , temple Heroine , Temple Mount Wukir .
Pembabakan temples by the Vogler , followed by Soetjipto Wirjosuparto grouping temples in Dieng , the book mentioned above .

As noted earlier , the temples at Dieng now there are eight pieces , although there is a possibility of the temple was once the amount is more than eight . Four temples line the north , namely Arjuna temple , temple Heroine , Cabdi Puntadewa and Sembodro temple , facing west. Faced with Arjuna temple there Semar temple , which serves as an ancillary temple , facing east . Meanwhile there is an opinion that the temple was located in front of the ancillary temples Heroine , Puntadewa and Sembodro , but now it is not left . This is the fifth temple of the group , because there are remnants of a fence surrounding .

history of the Wonosobo city

History of the town of Wonosobo closely associated with the development of Islamic Mataram power in the seventeenth century , or about the 1600s . Wonosobo when it was still a stretch of wilderness areas . Then at one point came three each rover named Kyai Walik , Kyai Kolodete , and Kyai Karim .

Those with relatives began pioneering a settlement in Wonosobo . They memulaimembuka forest and turn it into a residential and agricultural land as a source of their livelihood .

In the third trip Kyai live different place , Kyai Kolodete settle in the Dieng Plateau , Kyai Walik settled in the area around the town of Wonosobo , he was called as a character designer Karim Kyai city while living in the area Kalibeber . Of the three founding fathers of Wonosobo City , said Kyai Walik is a most prominent scholars close to the heart of the people, a populist leader figure .

After the Kyai occupy the new residence then start the new developments . The settlers more and more and more terkenallah Wonosobo .

While the origin of the name of Wonosobo very close relation to the number of entrants . Wonosobo etymologically derived from two words namely " Wono " which berartihutan and " Sobo " meaning to visit . So says Wonosobo roughly means " forest areas which are visited "
( Based on Folklore ) . DI became known several prominent authorities such as Hero Member Wonosobo Wonosobo Kartowaseso as ruler of the central authority in Selomanik . Also known as a character named Hero Member Wiroduta Wonosobo central ruling power in Pecekelan - Kalilusi , which subsequently transferred to Ledok - Wonosobo or Plobangan today. One grandchild Kyai Karim also known as one of the rulers of Wonosobo " i Singowedono " which has been awarded a place in the palace Selomerto of Mataram and was appointed ruler of this area its name changed to Tumenggung Jogonegoro . At this time the center of power moved to Selomerto . Hero Member dies after Jogonegoro Pakuncen buried in the village . In wartime Diponegoro (1825 - 1930) , Wonosobo is one of the Diponegoro supporter base defense forces .
Some important figures who support the struggle of Diponegoro is Imam Musbch or later known as Hero Member Kertosinuwun , Mas village chief or Tumenggung Mangkunegaran , Elephant Permodo and Kyai Muhammad Ngarpah . In a battle against the Dutch , Kyai Muhammad Ngarpah managed to obtain the first victory . The success of the Prince Diponegoro gave the name to Kyai Muhammad Ngarpah as Tumenggung Seconegoro . Furthermore Seconegoro Hero Member appointed by the ruler Ledok Tumenggung SECONEGORO glass . The existence of power Seconegoro Ledok area can be further examined from a variety of sources including the Dutch report published after the war Diponegoro completed . Regent Seconegoro is the center of power moved to the area from the town of Wonosobo Selomerto today.

Потягніть Forces Command НАТО Росію від України

Делегація Російської військова вантажівка далі виходить на Сімферопольському Севастополя в злочинності , України ( 1 /3). Український уряд називаючи дії Росії як акт вторгнення в Криму , який може збільшити напруженість у відносинах між Сходом і Заходом.

TEMPO.CO , Київ - Відправка військ до Криму по Росії , Україні , викликало критику від Організації Північноатлантичного договору ( НАТО). Генсек НАТО Андерс Фог Расмуссен закликав Росію вивести свої війська.

"Ми закликаємо Росію знизити напруженість і негайно вивести війська з Криму " , сказав він , як цитує BBC на понеділок , 3 березня 2014 року. За його словами , Росія повинна також утримуватися від будь-якого втручання в іншому місці в Україні .

Сотні російських військ оточили столицю Крим , Сімферополь. Цей крок є останнім військові маневри після підтримки Росії Президент України Віктор Янукович , був відсторонений від посади. Якщо Путін наказав військові дії , російсько-український війна майже напевно відбудеться.

Водночас , група озброєних людей взяли під свій контроль двох аеропортів Сімферополя і Криму парламенту. Вони також купувати російський прапор на вершині будівлі парламенту. Жителі Криму в основному з етнічних росіян . З 46 мільйонів жителів України , 77 відсотків етнічних українців і 17 відсотків етнічних росіян, решта Білорусь .

Події в Україні як і раніше жарко після демонстранти вдалося змусити парламент оголосити імпічмент президенту Віктору Януковичу на Суботу , 22 Лютого 2014 року. Янукович тоді бігли в основному етнічних регіонах Росії , і в минулий четвер повідомляється , знайшли притулок в Москві.

Saturday, February 15, 2014

sejarah tari topeng orang

Tari topeng adalah salah satu tarian tradisional yang ada di Cirebon. Tari ini dinamakan tari topeng karena 
ketika beraksi sang penari memakai topeng. Konon pada awalnya, Tari Topeng diciptakan oleh sultan Cirebon yang cukup terkenal, yaitu Sunan Gunung Jati. Ketika Sunan Gunung Jati berkuasa di Cirebon, terjadilah serangan oleh Pangeran Welang dari Karawang. Pangeran ini sangat sakti karena memiliki pedang yang diberi nama Curug Sewu. Melihat kesaktian sang pangeran tersebut, Sunan Gunung Jati tidak bisa menandinginya walaupun telah dibantu oleh Sunan Kalijaga dan Pangeran Cakrabuana. Akhirnya sultan Cirebon memutuskan untuk melawan kesaktian Pangeran Welang itu dengan cara diplomasi kesenian.
Berawal dari keputusan itulah kemudian terbentuk kelompok tari, dengan Nyi Mas Gandasari sebagai penarinya. Setelah kesenian itu terkenal, akhirnya Pangeran Welang jatuh cinta pada penari itu, dan menyerahkan pedang Curug Sewu itu sebagai pertanda cintanya. Bersamaan dengan penyerahan pedang itulah, akhirnya Pangeran Welang kehilangan kesaktiannya dan kemudian menyerah pada Sunan Gunung Jati. Pangeran itupun berjanji akan menjadi pengikut setia Sunan Gunung Jati yang ditandai dengan bergantinya nama Pangeran Welang menjadi Pangeran Graksan. Seiring dengan berjalannya waktu, tarian inipun kemudian lebih dikenal dengan nama Tari Topeng dan masih berkembang hingga sekarang.
Dalam tarian ini biasanya sang penari berganti topeng hingga tiga kali secara simultan, yaitu topeng warna putih, kemudian biru dan ditutup dengan topeng warna merah. Uniknya, tiap warna topeng yang dikenakan, gamelan yang ditabuh pun semakin keras sebagai perlambang dari karakter tokoh yang diperankan. Tarian ini diawali dengan formasi membungkuk, formasi ini melambangkan penghormatan kepada penonton dan sekaligus pertanda bahwa tarian akan dimulai. Setelah itu, kaki para penari digerakkan melangkah maju-mundur yang diiringi dengan rentangan tangan dan senyuman kepada para penontonnya. Gerakan ini kemudian dilanjutkan dengan membelakangi penonton dengan menggoyangkan pinggulnya sambil memakai topeng berwarna putih, topeng ini menyimbolkan bahwa pertunjukan pendahuluan sudah dimulai. Setelah berputar-putar menggerakkan tubuhnya, kemudian para penari itu berbalik arah membelakangi para penonton sambil mengganti topeng yang berwarna putih itu dengan topeng berwarna biru. Proses serupa juga dilakukan ketika penari berganti topeng yang berwarna merah. Uniknya, seiring dengan pergantian topeng itu, alunan musik yang mengiringinya maupun gerakan sang penari juga semakin keras. Puncak alunan musik paling keras terjadi ketika topeng warna merah dipakai para penari.
Seperti yang saya sebutkan diatas, masing-masing warna topeng yang dikenakan mewakili karakter tokoh yang dimainkan, sebut saja misalnya warna putih. Warna ini melambangkan tokoh yang punya karakter lembut dan alim. Sedangkan topeng warna biru, warna itu menggambarkan karakter sang ratu yang lincah dan anggun. Kemudian yang terakhir, warna merah menggambarkan karakter yang berangasan (tempramental) dan tidak sabaran. Dan busana yang dikenakan penari sendiri adalah biasanya selalu memiliki unsur warna kuning, hijau dan merah yang terdiri dari toka-toka, apok, kebaya, sinjang, dan ampreng.
Jika anda berminat untuk menyaksikan tarian yang dimainkan oleh satu atau beberapa orang penari cantik, seorang sinden, dan sepuluh orang laki-laki yang memainkan alat musik pengiring, di antaranya rebab, kecrek, kulanter, ketuk, gendang, gong, dan bendhe ini, silahkan datang saja ke Cirebon. Tarian ini biasanya akan dipentaskan ketika ada acara-acara kepemerintahan, hajatan sunatan, perkawinan maupun acara-acara rakyat lainnya.

Mengenal Sejarah Samurai Jepang

Hari ini aku pengen banget bahas tentang apa si Samurai? Gimana sih kerennya Samurai. yaah silahkan dibaca.

kalo menurut Wikipedia Samurai ( atau ?) adalah istilah untuk perwira militer kelas elit sebelum zaman industrialisasi di Jepang. Kata "samurai" berasal dari kata kerja "samorau" asal bahasa Jepang kuno, berubah menjadi "saburau" yang berarti "melayani", dan akhirnya menjadi "samurai" yang bekerja sebagai pelayan bagi sang majikan.
Istilah yang lebih tepat adalah bushi (武士) (harafiah: "orang bersenjata") yang digunakan semasa zaman Edo. Bagaimanapun, istilah samurai digunakan untuk prajurit elit dari kalangan bangsawan, dan bukan contohnya, ashigaru atau tentara berjalan kaki. Samurai yang tidak terikat dengan klan atau bekerja untuk majikan (daimyo) disebut ronin (harafiah: "orang ombak"). Samurai yang bertugas di wilayah han disebut hanshi.
Samurai harus sopan dan terpelajar, dan semasa Keshogunan Tokugawa berangsur-angsur kehilangan fungsi ketentaraan mereka. Pada akhir era Tokugawa, samurai secara umumnya adalah kakitangan umum bagi daimyo, dengan pedang mereka hanya untuk tujuan istiadat. Dengan reformasi Meiji pada akhir abad ke-19, samurai dihapuskan sebagai kelas berbeda dan digantikan dengan tentara nasional menyerupai negara Barat. Bagaimanapun juga, sifat samurai yang ketat yang dikenal sebagai bushido masih tetap ada dalam masyarakat Jepang masa kini, sebagaimana aspek cara hidup mereka yang lain.

yang aku tau tentang cerita dari Junna-san cewe pertukaran mahasiswa asing di FIB UNDIP. Dia cerita kalo penggambaran samurai itu sudah cukup jelas di film The Last Samurai. dah pernah nonton belum? bagus lho! hehe
Pada masa Edo, warga/masayarakat jepang sudah menerapkan kasta-kasta. Urutan kasta pada masa Edo adalah samurai, petani, tukang, dan pedagang, yang dalam ringkasan berbahasa Jepang dikenal sebagai shi nou kou shou, yaitu shi dari kata bushi (samurai), nou dari kata noumin (petani), kou dari kata kounin atau shokunin dan terakhir shou dari kata shounin (pedagang).Petani menempati urutan kelas dua setelah para samurai, karena pada masa Edo, beras adalah makanan vital yang dengannya para petani menjadi orang kaya dibandingkan kasta lain. Semua kasta tergantung kepada mereka dengan produksi berasnya. Mereka dihargai para daimyo dan samurai karena produksi berasnya.

Di jepang para samurai bisa disebut juga sebagai Pahlawannya. Tapi perlu temen-temen tahu, kalo Bushi di Jepang sekarang sudah ga ada.

Samurai identik banget sama Harakiri. Junna-san temen aku juga ngeri denger kata ini.
Harakiri bagi Para Samurai itu adalah Bunuh diri dengan cara menusuk dada atau perutnya lalu pedanngya di puter, trus pedangnya diarahin kebawah, kanan dan atas lagi, sampe usus keluar dan isi-isinya. hmm ngeri juga ya?
tau ga kenapa orang-orang samurai ini berani gini? Para Samurai itu sangat mengabdi pada budaya dan negaranya, apabila mereka kalah, mereka siap mati. daripada hidup menanggung malu, lebih baik mati untuk negaranya, daripada hidup diselimuti rasa malu. Pemimin yang gagal dia juga bersedia di penggal kepalanya oleh orang yang dia pilih. Dan orang yang dipilih itu adalah suatu kehormatan, karena dipilih untuk memenggal kepala sang samurai itu.

MacDonald House bombing

Berkas:Newspaper macdonald bombing.jpg

Newspaper The Straits Times reported that the bombing incident
MacDonald House bombing occurred on March 10, 1965 in Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank building ( known as the MacDonald House ) located at Orchard Road , Singapore . The time bomb installed by two people in Indonesia who are members of the Corps Command Operations , Aaron Hj Mohd Said and Usman Ali at the time of the confrontation . Three people died and at least 33 people harmed .
Since 1963 , the Indonesian government has opposed the unification of Malaysia . Singapore said that the Indonesian government then sends those aimed at sabotaging the situation in Singapore and Malaysia to exploit racial differences in the two countries as well as damaging the vital installations . According to him , the people that post then detonated explosives in public places to create tension and panic . MacDonald House bombing is bombing the most serious of all the bombings that took place in Singapore . Two of the dead are from ethnic Chinese while the other one is a Malay .
After the incident , the officers of the Department of Homeland Security and the Singapore Police catch Aaron and Usman . Both were hanged in 1968 .

Singapore Ship protest against the Republic of Indonesia ( KRI ) , named Usman Harun , opening our minds who the Usman - Aaron 's . Singapore is so important both to protest ?

Usman , whose full name is Usman bin Janatin H. Ali Hasan . Tawangsari Usman was born in Hamlet , Village Jatisaba , District Purbalingga , Purbalingga , Central Java , on March 18, 1943 . His last rank was Sergeant . He is member of the elite Corps Operations Command ( Marines ) , the forerunner of the Navy Marines ( AL ) .

Aaron , whose real name Tohir bin Said , who later became known Aaron Said . Born on the island of Bawean , Gresik regency , East Java. He was the third son of the father and mother named Mandar Aswiyani . Last rank was Corporal .

In the period 1962-1966 , the Malayan peninsula tensions . There is a desire to unite Malaysia Brunei , Sabah and Sarawak . Under the command of Indonesian President Sukarno refused it .

The Merger is expected to become the Malaysian Federation of Malaysia . Sukarno rejected outright . Due to Sukarno , the way the Federation of Malaysia is a new style of imperialism .

For Sukarno , the Federation of Malaysia like a " puppet of the British " . Also threaten Indonesia because it could be supporting the rebels who was still there in Indonesia .

Digelorakannya Dwikora by Sukarno , start the fight against the Malaysian Federation . Indonesia - Malaysia confrontation heats up . On May 3, 1964 , sent volunteers to these countries .

Harun Hj Mohd Said and Usman Ali who was member of the Marines , was sent to Singapore with a rubber boat . They were asked to sabotage the interests of Singapore .

Working both success. Until March 10, 1965 occurred pengemoban at MacDonald House , which is also the office Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Bank . Its location on Orchard Road . 33 people reportedly seriously injured , three more died .

Singapore detect the culprit . Usman and Aaron tries to get out of Singapore . Tightened vigil in lane exit Singapore . Various methods are used both to come out .

Usman and Aaron had departed leaving Singapore by boat . Unfortunately, in the middle of the journey , the boat's engine died so they are caught .

They were sentenced to death by hanging . Indonesian appeals mentally . So both in 1968 was hanged . Usman and Aaron died at the relatively young age , 25 years .

After the last respects , both bodies were flown to Indonesia to use Air Force aircraft .

Penyambutan jenazah di Jakarta
Mc Donald House

Ratu Boko Palace

Ratu Boko Palace is a magnificent palace complex built in the 8th century . Can be said to be the grandest building in the era it was built by one of the relatives of the founder of Borobudur .

Ratu Boko Palace , Splendor in Peaceful Hill

Ratu Boko Palace is a magnificent building which was built during the reign of Rakai Panangkaran , a descendant of Sailendra dynasty . The palace was originally named Abhayagiri Vihara ( meaning monastery on a peaceful hill ) was built for seclusion and focus on the spiritual life . Being in this palace , you can feel the peace while seeing the sights of Yogyakarta city and Prambanan Temple with the background of Mount Merapi .

The palace is located 196 meters above sea level . 250,000 m2 area of ​​the palace is divided into four , namely central , west , southeast , and east . The middle section consists of the main gate of the building , grounds , Combustion Temple , pond , sacred terrace , and Paseban . Meanwhile , the southeast part includes Hall , Hall - Hall , 3 temples , ponds , and complex for princess . Complex of caves , Buddhist Stupa , and there is a pool in the eastern part . While the western part consists only of the hills .

If you enter from the gate of the palace , you will go directly to the middle . Two high gate will welcome you . The first gate has three entrances while the second has 5 doors . If you are careful , the first gate will be found the word ' Panabwara ' . That word , based on Middle Wanua III inscription , written by Rakai Panabwara , ( descendant of Rakai Panangkaran ) who took over the palace . The purpose of writing his name is to legitimize power , give 'power ' that is more glorious and signaled that the building is the main building .

About 45 feet from the second gate , you will see a temple made ​​of white stones so -called White Stone temple . Not far from there , will find Combustion Temple . The temple is a square ( 26 meters x 26 meters ) and has 2 terraces . As the name implies , the temple used for cremation . In addition to the second temple , a sacred terrace and the pool will be encountered later when you walk approximately 10 meters from the Temple Burning .

The well is full of mystery will be encountered when running to the southeast of Temple Burning . That said , the well was named Amrita Mantana which means holy water given spell . Now , the water is still often used . Local people said , well water it can bring good luck to the wearer . While Hindus use it for Tawur grand ceremony the day before Nyepi . Water use in the ceremony is believed to support the goal , ie to self purify and restore the harmony of the earth and its contents at the beginning . YogYES suggest you visit Prambanan temple the day before Nyepi day to see the ceremony .

Stepping into the eastern part of the palace , you will see two caves , a large pool measuring 20 meters x 50 meters and a Buddhist stupa sits quietly. Two caves were formed from sedimentary rock called breccia Pumis . A cave called Gua Lanang upper while under the so-called Cave Wadon . Just in advance Lanang cave there is a pool and three stupas . According to a research , it is known that the effigy is Aksobya , one of the Buddhist Pantheon .

Although it was founded by a Buddhist, it has Hindu elements . It can be seen with the Linga and Yoni , Ganesha statues , and gold plate that reads " Om Rudra ya namah swaha " as a form of worship of the god Rudra is another name of Lord Shiva . The existence of Hindu elements that prove the existence of religious tolerance that is reflected in architectural works . Indeed , when the Rakai Panangkaran are Buddhists coexisted with the followers of Hinduism .

Few know that this house is witness initial triumph in the land of Sumatra . Balaputradewa had fled to the castle prior to Sumatra when attacked by Rakai Pikatan . Balaputradewa rebelled because they felt as the number two in the Ancient Mataram Kingdom government as a result of the marriage of Rakai Pikatan to Pramudhawardani ( brother Balaputradewa . After he defeated and fled to Sumatra , before he became king in the kingdom of Srivijaya .

As a heritage building , Ratu Boko Palace is unique among other relics . Other buildings are in the form of a temple or shrine , as the name implies it shows characteristics as a residence . It was evident from the presence of a pole building and roof are made ​​of wood , even though we can only see remains of a stone building. The palace , then you will get more, one of them a very beautiful view of the sunset . An American tourist said , " This is the most beautiful sunset on earth . "

Historical of Borobudur temple

Borobudur is the name of a Buddhist temple located at Borobudur District of Magelang District
which is located south of the + 15 km south of the town of Magelang kedu hilly plains almost entirely surrounded by mountains , the mountains surrounding the Borobudur Temple in the east of which there Merbabu and Mount Merapi West , Sea and Mount Sindoro Sumbing .

In ethnic Chinese , this temple is also called婆罗 浮屠(Pinyin : Luo pó fú TU) in Mandarin .


Many books - history books are written about Borobudur Borobudur but when it was founded can not know for sure
but an estimate can be obtained by writing in brief pahatkan feet above the original frame Borobudur reliefs ( Karwa Wibhangga )
shows similar to that in the letter of the inscription get in the end of the century - 8th century until the beginning - 9
of evidence - the evidence can be deduced that the Borobudur Temple was founded around the year 800 AD

The above conclusion was correct was in accordance with the framework of Indonesian history in general and history are also located in the area of ​​Central Java in particular
century to the period between - 8 and mid- century - 9 century in the famous Gold Wangsa dynasty
This triumph marked on the rise and a large number of temples on the slopes - mostly standing mountain slopes typical Hindu building while scattered on the plains - plains are typical Buddhist building but there are also some typical Hindu

Thus it can be deduced that in Borobudur Temple was built by the Sailendra dynasty famous in history because as an effort to uphold and glorify the Mahayana Buddhism .

Borobudur Development Phase
* The first stage
Borobudur construction period is not known with certainty ( estimated between 750 and 850 AD ) . At first built -storey apartment layout . It seems designed as a terraced pyramid . but later changed . As there is evidence that demolished apartment layout .
* The second stage
Borobudur foundation widened , plus two square steps and one step directly circle given the large stupa .
* The third stage
Railroad over a circle with a large main stupa dismantled and removed and replaced three railroad circles . Stupas built on top of these steps with a large stupa in the middle.
* The fourth stage
There are small changes like making relief changes and curved stairs above the door .

Into the wonders of the world Borobudur towering among the surrounding lowlands .

Does not make sense they would never see the greatest work of art is the work was amazing and not much sense anymore when in Borobudur say never suffered damage

Borobudur that is so forgotten for a long enough time frame even centuries - so magnificent century building faced with the destruction process .
- I wonder just 150 years old temple of Borobudur in use as a pilgrimage center , a short time compared with the age when workers decorate / build Borobudur natural hill with stones - under the rule of a very well known that Samaratungga ,
circa 800 - early by the end of the kingdom of Mataram know 930 M central Javanese life and culture shifted to the east

Similarly, because of the long -abandoned Abandoned - longer there - here is growing kind of - kind of wild plants which gradually became overgrown and covering the building .
At about - about - century Borobudur 10 abandoned and forgotten .

New in 1814 AD thanks to the efforts of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles Borobudur emerge from the darkness of the past .
Rafles was Lieutenant Governor -General of England , when Indonesia was in control / in jajah England in 1811 AD -1816 AD

In 1835 AD the whole temple in the release of what became prohibitive view of the second President named Hartman ,
because so interested to Borobudur temple so he sought further cleaning ,
debris still cover the temples in and get rid of soil covering the hallway - the hallway of the building of the temple in the temple get rid of all that better compared to before.

First Pictures of the Borobudur Temple in 1873 , the Dutch flag appears on the main stupa temple

Since Borobudur found repair and restoration efforts began back building Borobudur
first - first only done small - piecemeal and the making of images - images and pictures - photo reliefs.
Restoration of Borobudur temple which was first held in 1907 AD - 1911 AD under the leadership of Mr. Van erf the intention is to avoid damage - damage greater than building Borobudur

The highest terrace after restoration Van Erp

although many parts of the wall or walls - walls especially under level three of the Northwest , North and Northeast that still looks lopsided and very worrying for the visitors as well as the building itself , but the work of Van Erp temporarily Borobudur can be saved from further damage large .

Regarding the gate - gate only a few that have been done in the past has been to restore the glory of the past ,
but also needs to realize that the years - years in through hidden in the bush during the Borobudur - indirectly bush cover and protect from inclement weather that might damage the building Borobudur ,
Van Erp argued tilt and meleseknya wall - the wall of the building was not very harmful to the building ,
Opinion was until 50 years later is not wrong but since 1960 AD opinion of Mr. Van erf was started in doubt and in fear there will be more damage

Restoration of Borobudur temple
Restoration of Borobudur temple in the start date of August 10, 1973
prasati commencement of work restoration of Borobudur temple is located in the Northwest Facing east
refurbishment employees no less than 600 of them there is force - force young high school graduates and SIM
buildings that are given education, especially regarding the theory and practice in the field of Archaeology Chemika ( CA ) and Technology Archaeology ( TA )

Technology Archaeology duty unpacking and installing stone - stone Borobudur Archaeological while Chemika charge of cleaning and repair stones - stones that are already cracked and broken ,
job - job retention above all archeology is handled by the body restoration of Borobudur temple ,
while the work of a technical nature such as the provision of transport providing materials - building materials handled by contractors

Part - the part of the Borobudur Temple in pugar Rupadhatu which is part of the lower level where the square foot while the Borobudur Temple and porch I, II , III and the main stupa pugar participate in the restoration was completed on February 23, 1983 under the leadership of M DR Soekmono marked with an inscription stone weighing 20 tons + .

Inscription inauguration of the completion of restoration is in the western courtyard with a very large rock in the make with the two parts of the north-facing one another facing east
Writing in the inscription signed directly by the experts and skilled workers from Yogyakarta who worked on the restoration of Borobudur temple project .

Overview The process of restoration of Borobudur temple Time
* 1814 - Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles , Governor General of United Kingdom in Java , heard of the discovery of archaeological objects in the village of Borobudur .
Raffles ordered H.C. Cornelius to investigate the discovery site , a hill covered with shrubs.
* 1873 - The first monograph published about the temple .
* 1900 - The Dutch East Indies government established a committee of restoration and maintenance of Borobudur.
* 1907 - Theodoor van Erp led the restoration until 1911 .
* 1926 - Borobudur restored again , but stopped in 1940 due to malaise and the crisis of World War II .
* 1956 - The Indonesian government requested the assistance of UNESCO .
Prof . Dr. . C. Coremans came to Indonesia from Belgium to investigate the causes of damage to Borobudur .
* 1963 - The Indonesian government issued a decree to restore Borobudur , but the mess after the events of the G - 30 - S .
* 1968 - At the 15th conference in France , UNESCO agreed to provide assistance to rescue Borobudur .
* 1971 - The Indonesian government established a body chaired Prof.Ir.Roosseno restoration of Borobudur .
* 1972 - International Consultative Committee was formed with the involvement of various countries and Roosseno as chairman .
UNESCO-sponsored committees provide 5 million U.S. dollars from the cost of the restoration of 7,750 million U.S. dollars .
The rest is covered Indonesia .
* August 10, 1973 - President Soeharto inaugurated the commencement of restoration of Borobudur ; restoration was completed in 1984
* January 21, 1985 - bomb attacks that destroyed some of the stupa at Borobudur Temple which was soon restored .
The attack carried out by the Islamic extremist group led by Husein Ali Al Ethiopia .
* 1991 - Borobudur designated as UNESCO World Heritage .

The restoration of Borobudur temple memorial stone with the help of UNESCO

Many theories attempt to explain the name of this temple .
One of them states that the name is probably derived from the word Sambharabhudhara, which means " mountain " ( bhudara ) where the slopes are located terraces .
In addition there are some other folk etymology .

Suppose that the word comes from the greeting Borobudur " the Buddha" is due to a shift into borobudur sound .
Another explanation is that the name is derived from two words "coal " and " beduhur " .
The word bara said to have originated from the word monastery , while there are also other explanations where the coal comes from Sanskrit which means temple or monastery and beduhur meaning is " high " , or to remind the Balinese language means " above " .
So the point is a monastery or hostel located on high ground .

Historian J.G. de Casparis in his dissertation for a doctorate in 1950 argued that Borobudur is a place of worship .
Based on the inscription Karangtengah and Kahulunan , Casparis estimate Borobudur founder of the dynasty was the king of Mataram dynasty named Samaratungga , who do construction around the year 824 AD

The giant new building could be completed at the time of her daughter , Queen Pramudawardhani .
Borobudur Development estimated take half a century .
In Karangtengah inscriptions also mentioned about the bestowal of land sima ( tax -free land ) by Cri Kahulunan ( Pramudawardhani ) to maintain Kamulan called Bhūmisambhāra .
The term itself comes from the word Kamulan first place the origin of meaning , a sacred building to honor the ancestors ,
ancestors of the dynasty Sailendra possibility .
Casparis Sambhāra Bhudhāra estimates that Bhumi in Sanskrit which means " Mount of the set of ten levels boddhisattwa virtue " , was the original name of Borobudur .

Borobudur was built using stone Adhesit 55,000 M3
Borobudur pyramid-shaped building that staircase - with stairs going up to the railroad to - 4 sides ( North , South , East and West )
at Borobudur no room where people can not get in , but could rise to the top of the course .

Width building Borobudur 123 M
Long building Borobudur 123 M
At the turning angle 113 M
And building height Borobudur 30.5 M

At the foot of the original stone Adhesit closed by as much as 12,750 M3 corridor undaknya .

Borobudur has the basic structure punden , with six square courtyard , three round circular courtyard and a main stupa as a peak .
Also scattered in all the court was several stupas .

Ten courtyard owned Borobudur illustrates clearly the Mahayana school of philosophy .
Like a book , Borobudur described ten levels of Bodhisattva who must pass to reach the perfection of the Buddha .

The foot of Borobudur represents Kamadhatu, the world is still dominated by kama or "low desire " .
This section is mostly covered by a pile of stone that allegedly made to strengthen the construction of the temple .
At the closed part of this additional structure there are 120 panels Kammawibhangga story .
A small portion was set aside additional structure so that people can still see the relief in this section .

Four floors with wall berelief on it by the experts called Rupadhatu .
The floor is rectangular .
Rupadhatu is the world that has been able to break free from lust but still bound manner and form .
This level represents the nature ie, between the bottom and the nature of nature .
In part this Rupadhatu Buddha statues found in the recesses of the wall above ballustrade or breezeway .

Starting the fifth to the seventh floor walls are not berelief .
This level is called Arupadhatu ( which means no tangible form or not ) .
Circular floor plan .
This level represents the nature of , where people are free from all desires and bond forms and shapes , but have not reached nirvana .
The statues of Buddha placed in the stupa covered with holes as in captivity .
From outside the statues were still vaguely visible .

The highest level that describes the lack of form is represented in the form of the largest and highest stupa .
Stupa described plain without the holes .
In the largest stupa is a Buddha statue ever found imperfect or unfinished also called Buddha , who disalahsangkakan as Adibuddha statue , but through further research there never was a statue at the main stupa , which was not completed sculpture was a mistake pemahatnya in ancient times .
according to the belief that one statue in the manufacturing process is not to be tampered with .
Archaeological excavations conducted in the temple courtyard find many statues like this .

In the past , several Buddha statues along with 30 stones with reliefs , two stone lions , some kala -shaped stone , stairs and gates are sent to the King of Thailand , Chulalongkorn who visited the Dutch East Indies ( now Indonesia ) in 1896 as a gift from the Dutch Government as that.

Borobudur has no worship spaces like other temples .
That there are long hallways which is a narrow road .
The hallways surrounding the walled temple level by level .
In the halls of this is expected Buddhists perform ceremonies walk around the temple to the right .
The shape of the building without room and terraced structure is alleged is the development of punden form , which is a form of original architecture from prehistoric Indonesia .

Borobudur structure when viewed from above form the structure of the Mandala .

Borobudur structure does not use cement at all , but the interlock system is like Lego blocks that can be attached without glue .

Inside the building there is a statue of Buddha - Buddha statue numbered 504 pieces including the following :
Buddha statue found in niches - niches : 432 Fruit
While on the porch - the porch I, II , III totaled 72 Fruit
Total : 504 Fruit

To be more clear arrangement - the arrangement of the Buddha statue in the Buddha as follows :
1 . Step I teradapat : 104 Statue of Buddha
2 . There Step II : 104 Statue of Buddha
3 . There Step III : 88 Statues of Buddha
4 . There Step IV : 22 Statues of Buddha
5 . There Step V : 64 Statues of Buddha
6 . There is a patio Round I : 32 Statues of Buddha
7 . There is a patio Round II : 24 Statues of Buddha
8 . There is a patio Round III : 16 Statues of Buddha
Total : 504 Buddhist Statues

Buddha statues at a glance it looks similar to these but there is also a difference actually means a very clear distinction and also that distinguish each other is the hand gesture called Mudra and are characteristic for each statue
hand gesture Buddha statue in Borobudur temple there are 6 kinds just as wide therefore have a wide mudra in facing all directions ( North West and South East ) in section V and rupadhatu step on the part arupadhatu generally describe the same purpose that the amount of the mudra there are 5 principal
it is the fifth mudra Bhumispara - Wara Mudra - Mudra , Dhayana - Mudra Abhaya - Mudra , Dharma Chakra - Mudra .

In addition to Borobudur Buddhist statues there are also lions lions amount should not be less than 32 pieces but when it counted now dwindling due to various reasons the only large lion statues are on the western side of the page are also facing west as - if I'm keeping Borobudur is a magnificent building and elegant .

- Parent Stupa
Larger than the stupa - other stupa and is situated in the middle - the middle of the top which is mhkota of the entire building Borobudur monument ,
Stupa midline stem + 9.90 M highest peaks in call pinakel / Yasti Cikkara , located above and also trletak Padmaganda Harmika line .
- Stupa Perforated / Overlay
The meaning or overlay perforated stupa Stupa is located on the terrace I, II , III within which there is a statue of Buddha .
At Borobudur stupa number 72 Fruit entirely hollow , stupas - the stupa is at a level Arupadhatu
I found 32 Stupa terrace
There are 24 terraces II Stupa
There are 16 terraces III Stupa
Number 72 Stupa
- Small Stupa
Small stupa shaped stupa is similar to other menojol only difference that is smaller in size than the other stupas , as - if a building decoration Borobudur keberadaanstupa occupy niches - niches in step II to V while saampai step on the first step Keben and partly in the form of a small stupa stupa there is a small amount of fruit in 1472 .

At every level carved reliefs on temple walls .
These reliefs read clockwise or called mapradaksina in Old Javanese language derived from Sanskrit meaning is daksina east .
These reliefs variety of story content , among other reliefs Jataka stories .

Reading of the stories are always the starting relief , and ends on the east side of the gate at every level, starting on the left and ends on the right side of the gate .
So obviously that the east is the ladder up the real ( main ) and toward the top of the temple , it means that the temple facing east while the other sides of similar right .

In sequence , the story on meaningful temple reliefs briefly as follows :
In accordance with the symbolic meaning of the temple on foot ,
reliefs that adorn the walls of the hidden shelf illustrates the law of karma .
Rows of relief is not a story series ( series ) ,
but in every frame illustrates a story that has a causal correlation .
Relief is not just to give an idea of the human moral turpitude accompanied by penalties that will be obtained ,
but also human and reward good deeds .
An overall depiction of human life in the circle of birth - life - death ( samsara ) that never ends , and by Buddhism chain is exactly what would be topped off to perfection

History is a depiction of the Buddha in a row of reliefs ( but not a complete history )
which starts from the Buddha's descent from Tushita heaven , and ends with the first sermon in the Deer Park near the city of Banaras .
These reliefs lined the stairs on the south side, after a row exceeded the relief of 27 frames starting from the east side of the ladder .
The 27 frame depicts the bustle , both in heaven and in the world , as a preparation to welcome the presence of the last incarnation of the Bodhisattva Buddha as a candidate .
The reliefs depict the birth of the Buddha in this arcapada as Prince Siddhartha , son of King Suddhodana and Maya Empress of State Kapilavastu .
The relief amounted to 120 frames , which ended with the first discourse , which is symbolically expressed as a Screening Wheel of Dharma , the teachings of the Buddha is called dharma which also means " law " , whereas dharma is represented as a wheel .

Jataka AND Awadana
Jataka stories of the Buddha was born as Prince Siddharta before .
Protrusion of contents is the subject of good works , which distinguishes the Bodhisattvas of any other creature .
Indeed , the collection service / good deeds are in the preparation stage to the level of effort toward Buddhahood .

While Awadana , basically similar to the Jataka but the culprit is not the Bodhisattvas , but other people and stories collected in the book which means noble deeds Diwyawadana godlike , and the book Awadana Awadanasataka or a hundred stories .
In the reliefs of Borobudur and awadana Jataka , treated equally , meaning that they occur in the same row without a distinguishable .
The set of the most well-known of the life of the Bodhisattvas is Jatakamala or string of Jataka stories , Aryasura and poet who lived in the 4th century AD .

Is a row of reliefs adorn the walls of the hall to - 2 , is a story that wanders Sudhana tirelessly in his quest for knowledge about the Truth Top by Sudhana .
Description of the frame 460 based on Mahayana Buddhist scripture entitled Gandawyuha , and for the lid on the story of another Bhadracari .

In addition to the form of Buddha in Buddhist cosmology is engraved on the walls , there are many at Borobudur buddha statue sitting cross-legged in the lotus position and show mudras , or symbolic hand gesture given .

Buddha statue in the recesses at the level Rupadhatu , arranged by rows on the outer side of the balustrade .
Dwindling on the side of it .
The first row of the balustrade consists of 104 niches , the second line 104 niches , niches third row 88 , row 72 niches fourth , and fifth rows 64 niches .
There are a total number of 432 Buddha statues at the level Rupadhatu .
In the Arupadhatu ( three circular courtyard ) , the statue of Buddha placed in stupas berterawang ( perforated ) .
At first circular courtyard there are 32 stupas , the second court of the 24 stupas , and the third courtyard there are 16 stupas , all total 72 stupas .

Of the original number as many as 504 Buddha statues , over 300 have been damaged ( mostly headless ) and 43 missing ( since the monument 's discovery , heads of Buddha is often stolen as collector's item , mostly by foreign museums ) .

On the face of all these buddha statues look similar , but there are subtle differences among them , namely the mudras or the position of the hand gesture .
There are five groups of mudra : North , East, South , West , and Central , all of which is based on five main directions of the compass according to Mahayana teachings .

Fourth balustrade has four mudras : North , East, South , and West ,
wherein each of buddha statues facing the direction of the show typical mudra .
Buddha statues at the fifth balustrades and statues of Buddha in the 72 stupas on the upper court berterawang showing mudra : Middle or Center .
Each mudra symbolizes the five Dhyani Buddhas ;
each with its own symbolic meaning
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Friday, February 14, 2014

Sejarah lambang garuda

Sewaktu Republik Indonesia Serikat dibentuk, Sultan Hamid II diangkat menjadi Menteri Negara Zonder Porto Folio dan selama jabatan menteri negara itu ia ditugaskan Presiden Soekarno merencanakan, merancang dan merumuskan gambar lambang negara.

Tanggal 10 Januari 1950 dibentuk Panitia Teknis dengan nama Panitia Lencana Negara di bawah koordinator Menteri Negara Zonder Porto Folio Sultan Hamid II dengan susunan panitia teknis Muhammad Yamin sebagai ketua, Ki Hajar Dewantoro, M. A. Pellaupessy, Mohammad Natsir, dan RM Ngabehi Purbatjaraka sebagai anggota. Panitia ini bertugas menyeleksi usulan rancangan lambang negara untuk dipilih dan diajukan kepada pemerintah.


Merujuk keterangan Bung Hatta dalam buku “Bung Hatta Menjawab” untuk melaksanakan Keputusan Sidang Kabinet tersebut Menteri Priyono melaksanakan sayembara. Terpilih dua rancangan lambang negara terbaik, yaitu karya Sultan Hamid II dan karya M. Yamin. Pada proses selanjutnya yang diterima pemerintah dan DPR adalah rancangan Sultan Hamid II. Karya M. Yamin ditolak karena menyertakan sinar-sinar matahari dan menampakkan pengaruh Jepang.

Setelah rancangan terpilih, dialog intensif antara perancang (Sultan Hamid II), Presiden RIS Soekarno dan Perdana Menteri Mohammad Hatta, terus dilakukan untuk keperluan penyempurnaan rancangan itu. Terjadi kesepakatan mereka bertiga, mengganti pita yang dicengkeram Garuda, yang semula adalah pita merah putih menjadi pita putih dengan menambahkan semboyan “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika”.


Pada tanggal 8 Februari 1950, rancangan final lambang negara yang dibuat Menteri Negara RIS, Sultan Hamid II diajukan kepada Presiden Soekarno. Rancangan final lambang negara tersebut mendapat masukan dari Partai Masyumi untuk dipertimbangkan, karena adanya keberatan terhadap gambar burung garuda dengan tangan dan bahu manusia yang memegang perisai dan dianggap bersifat mitologis.

Sultan Hamid II kembali mengajukan rancangan gambar lambang negara yang telah disempurnakan berdasarkan aspirasi yang berkembang, sehingga tercipta bentuk Rajawali – Garuda Pancasila dan disingkat Garuda Pancasila. Presiden Soekarno kemudian menyerahkan rancangan tersebut kepada Kabinet RIS melalui Moh Hatta sebagai perdana menteri.

AG Pringgodigdo dalam bukunya “Sekitar Pancasila” terbitan Departemen Hankam, Pusat Sejarah ABRI menyebutkan, rancangan lambang negara karya Sultan Hamid II akhirnya diresmikan pemakaiannya dalam Sidang Kabinet RIS. Ketika itu gambar bentuk kepala Rajawali Garuda Pancasila masih “gundul” dan “’tidak berjambul”’ seperti bentuk sekarang ini.

Inilah karya kebangsaan anak-anak negeri yang diramu dari berbagai aspirasi dan kemudian dirancang oleh seorang anak bangsa, Sultan Hamid II Menteri Negara RIS. Presiden Soekarno kemudian memperkenalkan untuk pertama kalinya lambang negara itu kepada khalayak umum di Hotel Des Indes, Jakarta pada 15 Februari 1950.


Penyempurnaan kembali lambang negara itu terus diupayakan. Kepala burung Rajawali Garuda Pancasila yang “gundul” menjadi “berjambul” dilakukan. Bentuk cakar kaki yang mencengkram pita dari semula menghadap ke belakang menjadi menghadap ke depan juga diperbaiki, atas masukan Presiden Soekarno.

Tanggal 20 Maret 1950, bentuk akhir gambar lambang negara yang telah diperbaiki mendapat disposisi Presiden Soekarno, yang kemudian memerintahkan pelukis istana, Dullah, untuk melukis kembali rancangan tersebut sesuai bentuk akhir rancangan Menteri Negara RIS Sultan Hamid II yang dipergunakan secara resmi sampai saat ini.


Untuk terakhir kalinya, Sultan Hamid II menyelesaikan penyempurnaan bentuk final gambar lambang negara, yaitu dengan menambah skala ukuran dan tata warna gambar lambang negara di mana lukisan otentiknya diserahkan kepada H. Masagung, Yayasan Idayu Jakarta pada 18 Juli 1974. Sedangkan Lambang Negara yang ada disposisi Presiden Soekarno dan foto gambar lambang negara yang diserahkan ke Presiden Soekarno pada awal Februari 1950 masih tetap disimpan oleh Kraton Kadriyah, Pontianak.

Dari transkrip rekaman dialog Sultan Hamid II dengan Masagung (1974) sewaktu penyerahan berkas dokumen proses perancangan lambang negara, disebutkan “ide perisai Pancasila” muncul saat Sultan Hamid II sedang merancang lambang negara. Dia teringat ucapan Presiden Soekarno, bahwa hendaknya lambang negara mencerminkan pandangan hidup bangsa, dasar negara Indonesia, di mana sila-sila dari dasar negara, yaitu Pancasila divisualisasikan dalam lambang negara.

Sejarah kecantikan ratu Cleopatra

Menyebut Cleopatra akan mengingatkan kita tentang ratu cantik jelita
dari Mesir. Tapi sebentar, Cleopatra yang mana…? Karena ternyata
dalam sejarah Mesir Kuno – terdapat TUJUH ratu yang bernama Cleopatra.
Lalu dari ketujuh Cleopatra tersebut, mana yang paling terkenal dan
juga tercantik..? Ia adalah Cleopatra VII. Sedemikian jelitanya ratu
yang satu ini, sampai bisa memikat hati dua penguasa Romawi yaitu Julius
Caesar dan Mark Anthony, di dua jaman berbeda.
Akibat daya tarik Cleopatra ini pula, Triumvirate (tiga penguasa)
Romawi jadi bertikai satu sama lain. Demi mendapatkan Cleopatra, Mark
Anthony rela meninggalkan istrinya, yang merupakan adik Octavianus.
Terang saja Octavianus marah besar. Ia pun menyerang Mark Anthony dan
Cleopatra dengan menggunakan armada tempurnya. Pasukan Mark Anthony
dan Cleopatra kalah dalam pertempuran di Actium, Yunani tahun 33 sM.
Bak drama Romeo dan Juliet yang terlalu cepat 15 abad – Mark Anthony
dan Cleopatra bermaksud meneruskan cinta mereka di “alam baka”. Keduanya
bunuh diri. Mark Anthony bunuh diri dengan menikam diri menggunakan
pedang, dan akhirnya meninggal di pangkuan Cleopatra. Sementara sang
ratu melakukan bunuh diri dengan membiarkan dirinya dipatuk ular Asp (Kobra
Setelah meninggalnya Cleopatra, Mesir jatuh dalam kekuasaan Octavianus,
yang selanjutnya menjadi Kaisar Terbesar Romawi – dengan nama baru :
Kaisar Augustus, yang namanya sekarang kita pakai sebagai nama bulan.

Misteri Perahu Kayu Besar di Sekeliling Gunung

Studi yang dilakukan atas gambar-gambar relief candi acap kalu menemukan pemandangan yang ganjil dan menimbulkan tanda tanya berkepanjangan, hingga berdekade lamanya, bahkan sampai hari ini. Termasuk gambar perahu di situs candi terbesar yang disebut oleh kalangan arkeolog sebagai candi paling spektakuler di Jawa Timur, Candi Penataran, di Kabupaten Blitar.

Arkeolog Universitas Negeri Malang (UM), dwi Cahyono, yang akhir bulan lalu bersama mengelilingi sejumlah candi, termasuk Penataran, mengungkap salah satu gambar di sudut barat daya candi, di kawasan yang diistilahkan “pendapa teras luar candi”, yakni gambar perahu besar. Lokasinya berada di daerah dalam kompleks candi pada arah pintu masuk, bukan pada candinya.

“Artinya, kawasan pendapa teras luar ini mungkin lebih profan, yang ditujukan tidak sebagai lokasi peribadatan, area bagi masyarakat dan formasi sosial zaman itu,” katanya.

Kita bayangkan Prabu Hayam Wuruk bersama para petinggi kerajaan duduk di pendapa setinggi sekitar 2 meter ini, suatu dataran yang cukup luas sekitar 300 meter persegi, berupa susunan batu.

“Para arkeolog meyakini di atas pendapa ini ada bangunan kayu, sejenis rumah setengah terbuka, yang sekarang sudah musnah sebelum kemudian Prabu Hayam Wuruk memimpin upacara pemujaan di lokasi candi,” tuturnya.

Lokasi teras luar ini patut bersisi gambar relief kisah-kisah manusia, bukan dewa-dewa seperti relief dan patung candinya sendiri. Pada lokasi candinya, dilukiskan kisah Ramayana serta dewa-dewa berupa naga, burung, dan singa. Namun, justru itulah menariknya teras candi. Sebab, relief ini seolah potret masa lalu masyarakat candi ini.

“Jika teks-teks arkeologis hanya menyampaikan pelukisan naratif berupa kata-kata, pada relief ini kita benar-benar melihat gambar, yang kita bayangkan seperti gambaran masyarakat zaman itu,” ujarnya.

Kita, misalnya, bisa menemukan musik kolintang, seperti yang sekarang sekarang dimainkan oleh orang Sulawesi Utara dan tidak lagi dimainkan oleh orang Jawa, di relief Candi Penataran. Lalu timbul tanda tanya, bagaimana bisa demikian ?

Mengapa ada kolintang di Penataran, sementara kita tidak menemukan kolintang pada masyarakat Pulau Jawa saat ini ? Lalu kapan kolintang pindah ke Sulawesi jika dulu pernah dimainkan di Jawa ? Sungguh pertanyaan yang tak putus-putus untuk bisa mendapatkan jawabannya.
Orang Viking

Gambar yang tak kalah mengherankan adalah gambar perahu di lokasi sudut barat daya teras luas candi itu. Gambar ini sejauh yang tampak merupakan salah satu dari dua gambar perahu di teras luar candi, keduanya berjarak beberapa meter. Namun, gambar perahu di sudut menggambarkan jenis dan ukuran perahu yang besar.

Perahu itu memiliki tiang layar. Pelukisannya tampak seperti perahu besar, lalu pada badan perahu tampak ada garis-garis yang rupanya dipahami sebagai pendayung panjang.

Ini gambaran yang mengingatkan pada gambar perahu Eropa kuno, perahu orang Viking yang bagian depan atau kepala perahunya berukir, lalu di kiri dan kanan perahu ada pendayung dan dayungnya, yang biasanya adalah para budak. Hanya saja tidak tampak ada gambar senjata atau meriam.
Sulit menemukan jawaban atas gambar perahu yang dilukiskan pada candi yang justru berada di sekeliling gunung tinggi ini. Sejumlah tanda tanya muncul, jika ini adalah perahu lokal, di mana perahu ini beroperasi di sekitar Blitar ini.

Sebab hanya ada Sungai Brantas di Blitar sehingga hanya mungkin perahu ini mondar-mandir di Sungai Brantas. Itu artinya Sungai Brantas masa itu cukup besar dan dalam untuk dilintasi perahu sebesar itu. Namun, Sungai Brantas juga dikenal memiliki kontur yang curam antara hulu dan hilir. Jika perahu bisa ke arah hilir, apakah mungkin perahu dikemudikan ke arah hulu dalam keadaan melawan arus.

Tidak ada jawaban atas tanda tanya ini, kata Dwi. Slamet Pinardi dan Winston Mambo, penulis artikel Perdagangan pada Masa Majapahit, menyinggung tentang perahu ini dalam buku bunga rampai 700 Tahun Majapahit (Dinas Pariwisata Daerah Provinsi Daerah Tingkat I Jawa Timur, 1992) tulisan Sartono Kartodijo dan kawan-kawan.

Disebutkan, Surabaya, Tuban, dan Sedayu (Gresik) adalah pelabuhan-pelabuhan maju sejak tahun 1365. Masyarakat Jawa sudah mengenal alat angkut air. Slamet dan Winston meyakini, kegiatan pengangkutan itu dilakukan dengan motif perdagangan, mengingat sepanjang lembah Brantas masa itu juga sudah produktif sebagai produsen pagi, ekspor merica dengan Dinasti Song di China.

Slamet dan Winston mengungkap, bersumber dari kitab babon untuk studi Singosari, Pararaton, bahwa di Sungai Brantas ada pelabuhan Canggu, Trung atau Terung, dan Bubat. Ini daerah yang diperkirakan berada di sekitar Mojokerto. Perang yang menentukan bagi sejarah Majapahit berada di Bubat, saat perang dengan Kerajaan Siliwangi.

Canggu juga dikenal sebagai titik penyeberangan jika hendak pergi ke Madura pada zaman itru. Lokasi-lokasi tersebut adalah ruas Sungai Brantas tyang sudah cukup landai, jauh dari Blitar yang lebih dekat ke hulu. Artinya, meski dilukiskan pada relief candi di lokasi bergunung di lereng Gunung Kelud, Candi Penataran adalah gambar lanskap yang luas sampai ke Surabaya.