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Saturday, February 15, 2014

Historical of Borobudur temple



Borobudur is the name of a Buddhist temple located at Borobudur District of Magelang District
which is located south of the + 15 km south of the town of Magelang kedu hilly plains almost entirely surrounded by mountains , the mountains surrounding the Borobudur Temple in the east of which there Merbabu and Mount Merapi West , Sea and Mount Sindoro Sumbing .

In ethnic Chinese , this temple is also called婆罗 浮屠(Pinyin : Luo pó fú TU) in Mandarin .

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ORIGINS BOROBUDUR
TIME WAS

Many books - history books are written about Borobudur Borobudur but when it was founded can not know for sure
but an estimate can be obtained by writing in brief pahatkan feet above the original frame Borobudur reliefs ( Karwa Wibhangga )
shows similar to that in the letter of the inscription get in the end of the century - 8th century until the beginning - 9
of evidence - the evidence can be deduced that the Borobudur Temple was founded around the year 800 AD

The above conclusion was correct was in accordance with the framework of Indonesian history in general and history are also located in the area of ​​Central Java in particular
century to the period between - 8 and mid- century - 9 century in the famous Gold Wangsa dynasty
This triumph marked on the rise and a large number of temples on the slopes - mostly standing mountain slopes typical Hindu building while scattered on the plains - plains are typical Buddhist building but there are also some typical Hindu

Thus it can be deduced that in Borobudur Temple was built by the Sailendra dynasty famous in history because as an effort to uphold and glorify the Mahayana Buddhism .

Borobudur Development Phase
* The first stage
Borobudur construction period is not known with certainty ( estimated between 750 and 850 AD ) . At first built -storey apartment layout . It seems designed as a terraced pyramid . but later changed . As there is evidence that demolished apartment layout .
* The second stage
Borobudur foundation widened , plus two square steps and one step directly circle given the large stupa .
* The third stage
Railroad over a circle with a large main stupa dismantled and removed and replaced three railroad circles . Stupas built on top of these steps with a large stupa in the middle.
* The fourth stage
There are small changes like making relief changes and curved stairs above the door .

recovery
Into the wonders of the world Borobudur towering among the surrounding lowlands .

Does not make sense they would never see the greatest work of art is the work was amazing and not much sense anymore when in Borobudur say never suffered damage

Borobudur that is so forgotten for a long enough time frame even centuries - so magnificent century building faced with the destruction process .
- I wonder just 150 years old temple of Borobudur in use as a pilgrimage center , a short time compared with the age when workers decorate / build Borobudur natural hill with stones - under the rule of a very well known that Samaratungga ,
circa 800 - early by the end of the kingdom of Mataram know 930 M central Javanese life and culture shifted to the east

Similarly, because of the long -abandoned Abandoned - longer there - here is growing kind of - kind of wild plants which gradually became overgrown and covering the building .
At about - about - century Borobudur 10 abandoned and forgotten .

New in 1814 AD thanks to the efforts of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles Borobudur emerge from the darkness of the past .
Rafles was Lieutenant Governor -General of England , when Indonesia was in control / in jajah England in 1811 AD -1816 AD

In 1835 AD the whole temple in the release of what became prohibitive view of the second President named Hartman ,
because so interested to Borobudur temple so he sought further cleaning ,
debris still cover the temples in and get rid of soil covering the hallway - the hallway of the building of the temple in the temple get rid of all that better compared to before.

First Pictures of the Borobudur Temple in 1873 , the Dutch flag appears on the main stupa temple

RESCUE 1
 
Since Borobudur found repair and restoration efforts began back building Borobudur
first - first only done small - piecemeal and the making of images - images and pictures - photo reliefs.
Restoration of Borobudur temple which was first held in 1907 AD - 1911 AD under the leadership of Mr. Van erf the intention is to avoid damage - damage greater than building Borobudur
 

The highest terrace after restoration Van Erp

although many parts of the wall or walls - walls especially under level three of the Northwest , North and Northeast that still looks lopsided and very worrying for the visitors as well as the building itself , but the work of Van Erp temporarily Borobudur can be saved from further damage large .

Regarding the gate - gate only a few that have been done in the past has been to restore the glory of the past ,
but also needs to realize that the years - years in through hidden in the bush during the Borobudur - indirectly bush cover and protect from inclement weather that might damage the building Borobudur ,
Van Erp argued tilt and meleseknya wall - the wall of the building was not very harmful to the building ,
Opinion was until 50 years later is not wrong but since 1960 AD opinion of Mr. Van erf was started in doubt and in fear there will be more damage

Restoration of Borobudur temple
Restoration of Borobudur temple in the start date of August 10, 1973
prasati commencement of work restoration of Borobudur temple is located in the Northwest Facing east
refurbishment employees no less than 600 of them there is force - force young high school graduates and SIM
buildings that are given education, especially regarding the theory and practice in the field of Archaeology Chemika ( CA ) and Technology Archaeology ( TA )

Technology Archaeology duty unpacking and installing stone - stone Borobudur Archaeological while Chemika charge of cleaning and repair stones - stones that are already cracked and broken ,
job - job retention above all archeology is handled by the body restoration of Borobudur temple ,
while the work of a technical nature such as the provision of transport providing materials - building materials handled by contractors
( PT Nidya WORKS AND THE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION OF CONTRUCTION AND THE filipine ) .

Part - the part of the Borobudur Temple in pugar Rupadhatu which is part of the lower level where the square foot while the Borobudur Temple and porch I, II , III and the main stupa pugar participate in the restoration was completed on February 23, 1983 under the leadership of M DR Soekmono marked with an inscription stone weighing 20 tons + .

Inscription inauguration of the completion of restoration is in the western courtyard with a very large rock in the make with the two parts of the north-facing one another facing east
Writing in the inscription signed directly by the experts and skilled workers from Yogyakarta who worked on the restoration of Borobudur temple project .

Overview The process of restoration of Borobudur temple Time
* 1814 - Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles , Governor General of United Kingdom in Java , heard of the discovery of archaeological objects in the village of Borobudur .
Raffles ordered H.C. Cornelius to investigate the discovery site , a hill covered with shrubs.
* 1873 - The first monograph published about the temple .
* 1900 - The Dutch East Indies government established a committee of restoration and maintenance of Borobudur.
* 1907 - Theodoor van Erp led the restoration until 1911 .
* 1926 - Borobudur restored again , but stopped in 1940 due to malaise and the crisis of World War II .
* 1956 - The Indonesian government requested the assistance of UNESCO .
Prof . Dr. . C. Coremans came to Indonesia from Belgium to investigate the causes of damage to Borobudur .
* 1963 - The Indonesian government issued a decree to restore Borobudur , but the mess after the events of the G - 30 - S .
* 1968 - At the 15th conference in France , UNESCO agreed to provide assistance to rescue Borobudur .
* 1971 - The Indonesian government established a body chaired Prof.Ir.Roosseno restoration of Borobudur .
* 1972 - International Consultative Committee was formed with the involvement of various countries and Roosseno as chairman .
UNESCO-sponsored committees provide 5 million U.S. dollars from the cost of the restoration of 7,750 million U.S. dollars .
The rest is covered Indonesia .
* August 10, 1973 - President Soeharto inaugurated the commencement of restoration of Borobudur ; restoration was completed in 1984
* January 21, 1985 - bomb attacks that destroyed some of the stupa at Borobudur Temple which was soon restored .
The attack carried out by the Islamic extremist group led by Husein Ali Al Ethiopia .
* 1991 - Borobudur designated as UNESCO World Heritage .
 

The restoration of Borobudur temple memorial stone with the help of UNESCO

THE ORIGIN OF NAME BOROBUDUR
Many theories attempt to explain the name of this temple .
One of them states that the name is probably derived from the word Sambharabhudhara, which means " mountain " ( bhudara ) where the slopes are located terraces .
In addition there are some other folk etymology .

Suppose that the word comes from the greeting Borobudur " the Buddha" is due to a shift into borobudur sound .
Another explanation is that the name is derived from two words "coal " and " beduhur " .
The word bara said to have originated from the word monastery , while there are also other explanations where the coal comes from Sanskrit which means temple or monastery and beduhur meaning is " high " , or to remind the Balinese language means " above " .
So the point is a monastery or hostel located on high ground .

Historian J.G. de Casparis in his dissertation for a doctorate in 1950 argued that Borobudur is a place of worship .
Based on the inscription Karangtengah and Kahulunan , Casparis estimate Borobudur founder of the dynasty was the king of Mataram dynasty named Samaratungga , who do construction around the year 824 AD

The giant new building could be completed at the time of her daughter , Queen Pramudawardhani .
Borobudur Development estimated take half a century .
In Karangtengah inscriptions also mentioned about the bestowal of land sima ( tax -free land ) by Cri Kahulunan ( Pramudawardhani ) to maintain Kamulan called Bhūmisambhāra .
The term itself comes from the word Kamulan first place the origin of meaning , a sacred building to honor the ancestors ,
ancestors of the dynasty Sailendra possibility .
Casparis Sambhāra Bhudhāra estimates that Bhumi in Sanskrit which means " Mount of the set of ten levels boddhisattwa virtue " , was the original name of Borobudur .

BUILDING BOROBUDUR
BUILDING DESCRIPTION BOROBUDUR
Borobudur was built using stone Adhesit 55,000 M3
Borobudur pyramid-shaped building that staircase - with stairs going up to the railroad to - 4 sides ( North , South , East and West )
at Borobudur no room where people can not get in , but could rise to the top of the course .

Width building Borobudur 123 M
Long building Borobudur 123 M
At the turning angle 113 M
And building height Borobudur 30.5 M

At the foot of the original stone Adhesit closed by as much as 12,750 M3 corridor undaknya .

Borobudur has the basic structure punden , with six square courtyard , three round circular courtyard and a main stupa as a peak .
Also scattered in all the court was several stupas .

Ten courtyard owned Borobudur illustrates clearly the Mahayana school of philosophy .
Like a book , Borobudur described ten levels of Bodhisattva who must pass to reach the perfection of the Buddha .

The foot of Borobudur represents Kamadhatu, the world is still dominated by kama or "low desire " .
This section is mostly covered by a pile of stone that allegedly made to strengthen the construction of the temple .
At the closed part of this additional structure there are 120 panels Kammawibhangga story .
A small portion was set aside additional structure so that people can still see the relief in this section .



Four floors with wall berelief on it by the experts called Rupadhatu .
The floor is rectangular .
Rupadhatu is the world that has been able to break free from lust but still bound manner and form .
This level represents the nature ie, between the bottom and the nature of nature .
In part this Rupadhatu Buddha statues found in the recesses of the wall above ballustrade or breezeway .

Starting the fifth to the seventh floor walls are not berelief .
This level is called Arupadhatu ( which means no tangible form or not ) .
Circular floor plan .
This level represents the nature of , where people are free from all desires and bond forms and shapes , but have not reached nirvana .
The statues of Buddha placed in the stupa covered with holes as in captivity .
From outside the statues were still vaguely visible .

The highest level that describes the lack of form is represented in the form of the largest and highest stupa .
Stupa described plain without the holes .
In the largest stupa is a Buddha statue ever found imperfect or unfinished also called Buddha , who disalahsangkakan as Adibuddha statue , but through further research there never was a statue at the main stupa , which was not completed sculpture was a mistake pemahatnya in ancient times .
according to the belief that one statue in the manufacturing process is not to be tampered with .
Archaeological excavations conducted in the temple courtyard find many statues like this .

In the past , several Buddha statues along with 30 stones with reliefs , two stone lions , some kala -shaped stone , stairs and gates are sent to the King of Thailand , Chulalongkorn who visited the Dutch East Indies ( now Indonesia ) in 1896 as a gift from the Dutch Government as that.



Borobudur has no worship spaces like other temples .
That there are long hallways which is a narrow road .
The hallways surrounding the walled temple level by level .
In the halls of this is expected Buddhists perform ceremonies walk around the temple to the right .
The shape of the building without room and terraced structure is alleged is the development of punden form , which is a form of original architecture from prehistoric Indonesia .

Borobudur structure when viewed from above form the structure of the Mandala .

Borobudur structure does not use cement at all , but the interlock system is like Lego blocks that can be attached without glue .


STATUE
Inside the building there is a statue of Buddha - Buddha statue numbered 504 pieces including the following :
Buddha statue found in niches - niches : 432 Fruit
While on the porch - the porch I, II , III totaled 72 Fruit
Total : 504 Fruit

To be more clear arrangement - the arrangement of the Buddha statue in the Buddha as follows :
1 . Step I teradapat : 104 Statue of Buddha
2 . There Step II : 104 Statue of Buddha
3 . There Step III : 88 Statues of Buddha
4 . There Step IV : 22 Statues of Buddha
5 . There Step V : 64 Statues of Buddha
6 . There is a patio Round I : 32 Statues of Buddha
7 . There is a patio Round II : 24 Statues of Buddha
8 . There is a patio Round III : 16 Statues of Buddha
Total : 504 Buddhist Statues

Buddha statues at a glance it looks similar to these but there is also a difference actually means a very clear distinction and also that distinguish each other is the hand gesture called Mudra and are characteristic for each statue
hand gesture Buddha statue in Borobudur temple there are 6 kinds just as wide therefore have a wide mudra in facing all directions ( North West and South East ) in section V and rupadhatu step on the part arupadhatu generally describe the same purpose that the amount of the mudra there are 5 principal
it is the fifth mudra Bhumispara - Wara Mudra - Mudra , Dhayana - Mudra Abhaya - Mudra , Dharma Chakra - Mudra .

LION STATUE
In addition to Borobudur Buddhist statues there are also lions lions amount should not be less than 32 pieces but when it counted now dwindling due to various reasons the only large lion statues are on the western side of the page are also facing west as - if I'm keeping Borobudur is a magnificent building and elegant .

STUPA
- Parent Stupa
Larger than the stupa - other stupa and is situated in the middle - the middle of the top which is mhkota of the entire building Borobudur monument ,
Stupa midline stem + 9.90 M highest peaks in call pinakel / Yasti Cikkara , located above and also trletak Padmaganda Harmika line .
- Stupa Perforated / Overlay
The meaning or overlay perforated stupa Stupa is located on the terrace I, II , III within which there is a statue of Buddha .
At Borobudur stupa number 72 Fruit entirely hollow , stupas - the stupa is at a level Arupadhatu
I found 32 Stupa terrace
There are 24 terraces II Stupa
There are 16 terraces III Stupa
Number 72 Stupa
- Small Stupa
Small stupa shaped stupa is similar to other menojol only difference that is smaller in size than the other stupas , as - if a building decoration Borobudur keberadaanstupa occupy niches - niches in step II to V while saampai step on the first step Keben and partly in the form of a small stupa stupa there is a small amount of fruit in 1472 .

RELIEF
At every level carved reliefs on temple walls .
These reliefs read clockwise or called mapradaksina in Old Javanese language derived from Sanskrit meaning is daksina east .
These reliefs variety of story content , among other reliefs Jataka stories .

Reading of the stories are always the starting relief , and ends on the east side of the gate at every level, starting on the left and ends on the right side of the gate .
So obviously that the east is the ladder up the real ( main ) and toward the top of the temple , it means that the temple facing east while the other sides of similar right .

In sequence , the story on meaningful temple reliefs briefly as follows :
Karmawibhangga
In accordance with the symbolic meaning of the temple on foot ,
reliefs that adorn the walls of the hidden shelf illustrates the law of karma .
Rows of relief is not a story series ( series ) ,
but in every frame illustrates a story that has a causal correlation .
Relief is not just to give an idea of the human moral turpitude accompanied by penalties that will be obtained ,
but also human and reward good deeds .
An overall depiction of human life in the circle of birth - life - death ( samsara ) that never ends , and by Buddhism chain is exactly what would be topped off to perfection

Lalitawistara
History is a depiction of the Buddha in a row of reliefs ( but not a complete history )
which starts from the Buddha's descent from Tushita heaven , and ends with the first sermon in the Deer Park near the city of Banaras .
These reliefs lined the stairs on the south side, after a row exceeded the relief of 27 frames starting from the east side of the ladder .
The 27 frame depicts the bustle , both in heaven and in the world , as a preparation to welcome the presence of the last incarnation of the Bodhisattva Buddha as a candidate .
The reliefs depict the birth of the Buddha in this arcapada as Prince Siddhartha , son of King Suddhodana and Maya Empress of State Kapilavastu .
The relief amounted to 120 frames , which ended with the first discourse , which is symbolically expressed as a Screening Wheel of Dharma , the teachings of the Buddha is called dharma which also means " law " , whereas dharma is represented as a wheel .

Jataka AND Awadana
Jataka stories of the Buddha was born as Prince Siddharta before .
Protrusion of contents is the subject of good works , which distinguishes the Bodhisattvas of any other creature .
Indeed , the collection service / good deeds are in the preparation stage to the level of effort toward Buddhahood .

While Awadana , basically similar to the Jataka but the culprit is not the Bodhisattvas , but other people and stories collected in the book which means noble deeds Diwyawadana godlike , and the book Awadana Awadanasataka or a hundred stories .
In the reliefs of Borobudur and awadana Jataka , treated equally , meaning that they occur in the same row without a distinguishable .
The set of the most well-known of the life of the Bodhisattvas is Jatakamala or string of Jataka stories , Aryasura and poet who lived in the 4th century AD .

Gandawyuha
Is a row of reliefs adorn the walls of the hall to - 2 , is a story that wanders Sudhana tirelessly in his quest for knowledge about the Truth Top by Sudhana .
Description of the frame 460 based on Mahayana Buddhist scripture entitled Gandawyuha , and for the lid on the story of another Bhadracari .

ARCA BUDDHA
In addition to the form of Buddha in Buddhist cosmology is engraved on the walls , there are many at Borobudur buddha statue sitting cross-legged in the lotus position and show mudras , or symbolic hand gesture given .

Buddha statue in the recesses at the level Rupadhatu , arranged by rows on the outer side of the balustrade .
Dwindling on the side of it .
The first row of the balustrade consists of 104 niches , the second line 104 niches , niches third row 88 , row 72 niches fourth , and fifth rows 64 niches .
There are a total number of 432 Buddha statues at the level Rupadhatu .
In the Arupadhatu ( three circular courtyard ) , the statue of Buddha placed in stupas berterawang ( perforated ) .
At first circular courtyard there are 32 stupas , the second court of the 24 stupas , and the third courtyard there are 16 stupas , all total 72 stupas .

Of the original number as many as 504 Buddha statues , over 300 have been damaged ( mostly headless ) and 43 missing ( since the monument 's discovery , heads of Buddha is often stolen as collector's item , mostly by foreign museums ) .

On the face of all these buddha statues look similar , but there are subtle differences among them , namely the mudras or the position of the hand gesture .
There are five groups of mudra : North , East, South , West , and Central , all of which is based on five main directions of the compass according to Mahayana teachings .

Fourth balustrade has four mudras : North , East, South , and West ,
wherein each of buddha statues facing the direction of the show typical mudra .
Buddha statues at the fifth balustrades and statues of Buddha in the 72 stupas on the upper court berterawang showing mudra : Middle or Center .
Each mudra symbolizes the five Dhyani Buddhas ;
each with its own symbolic meaning
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